By Jonathan S. Ray
Honorary point out for the 2014 Medieval and Early glossy Jewish background part publication award awarded by means of the organization for Jewish Studies
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Extra resources for After Expulsion: 1492 and the Making of Sephardic Jewry
Indeed, even the frequent and strident opposition to interreligious contact by both Christian and Jewish leaders failed to deter Jews from integrating into their host society in a number of ways. Jews formed business associations with their Christian neighbors, ate, drank, and socialized with them, and exchanged ideas with one another. 42 With the exception of 1391, attacks against Jews were generally localized to one city or region. Anti-Jewish legislation differed according to kingdom, and often by city, and was enforced with varying degrees of enthusiasm.
As the Christian dominions expanded, Jews became increasingly involved in loaning money to settlers and great barons alike. Though most Jews continued to eke out a meager living as artisans and petty traders, wealthy and influential Jewish families could be found in nearly every major town from Lisbon to Barcelona. In addition to these larger urban centers, Jews also flourished in those recently conquered frontier zones that were in desperate need of merchants, artisans, bankers, and civil servants.
40 But while fighting between Christians and Muslims was often supported by the language of holy war, the long centuries of reconquest were also marked by internecine fighting within both camps. Christian kings accepted Muslims as allies and vassals whose military and monetary support were used to fuel warfare against other Christian lords. Iberian churches were at the mercy of ambitious monarchs who, under the pretext of fighting the “infidel,” would redirect ecclesiastical funds toward their own personal endeavors.
After Expulsion: 1492 and the Making of Sephardic Jewry by Jonathan S. Ray