By W. South Coblin
‘Phags-pa chinese language is the earliest type of the chinese to be written in a systematically devised alphabetic script. it's named after its writer, an excellent thirteenth-century Tibetan scholar-monk who additionally served as political adviser to Kublai Khan. ‘Phags-pa’s invention of an alphabet for the Mongolian language is still an awfully very important accomplishment, either conceptually and virtually. With it he accomplished not anything below the construction of a unified script for the entire a variety of peoples within the Mongolian empire, together with the valuable Asian Turks and Sinitic-speaking Chinese.‘Phags-pa is of giant significance for the examine of premodern chinese language phonology. notwithstanding, the script is hard to learn and interpret, and secondary fabrics on it are scattered and never simply got. the current ebook is meant as a pragmatic creation to ‘Phags-pa chinese language reports and a advisor for examining and analyzing the script. It contains elements. the 1st half is an introductory part comprising 4 chapters. this can be by way of a thesaurus of ‘Phags-pa chinese language types and their corresponding chinese language characters, including p?ny?n and stroke order indexes to these characters. the 1st introductory bankruptcy outlines the discovery of the ‘Phags-pa writing procedure, summarizes the most important forms of fabric preserved in it, and describes the ancient and linguistic contexts within which this invention happened. Following chapters aspect the historical past of ‘Phags-pa reports, the alphabet and its interpretation, and the salient good points of the underlying sound procedure represented through the script, evaluating it with these of assorted later types of chinese language which have been recorded in alphabetic sources.A instruction manual of ‘Phags-pa chinese language may be of specified curiosity to chinese language ancient phonologists and students inquisitive about the background and tradition of China and valuable Asia throughout the Yuan interval (1279–1368 A.D.).
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Additional info for A Handbook of 'Phags-pa Chinese (ABC Chinese Dictionary Series)
In this system, we see that the zhuo series was still preserved in at least one variety of standard Chinese pronunciation at a time later than the creation of the 'Phags-pa script. There is therefore nothing implausible about finding it in another fonn of standard pronunciation from two centuries earlier. A different type of objection to the phonetic reality of a 'Phags-pa zhuo class has m 38 The 'Phags-pa Alphabet been raised by Cheng (1985: 50). He cites an interesting set of examples from the 'Phags-pa inscriptions where, when faced with the practical task of producing Chinese texts in the 'Phags-pa script, the writers failed to maintain the zhuo distinction consistently.
In their campaigns against the JIn and later against the Southern Song, the Mongols made large-scale use of defectors. In fact, after an initial period of wholesale slaughter and destruction, there was a change in approach to conquered areas and populations, and defection was actively encouraged. Military personnel, often comprising entire units who had surrendered peaceably, were treated leniently and accepted into the ranks of the conquerors. Civil officials who did not resist and remained at their posts were in many cases simply put back to work in the new administration.
22 II A Brief Review of 'Phags-pa Chinese Studies The single most informative source on the history of 'Phags-pa studies in general and of the Chinese 'Phags-pa field in particular is the introduction to Nakano (1971), especially pages 8-23. Also of considerable interest are the bibliographical notes and annotations in Ligeti (1956; 1961), Hashimoto (1978; 1978-79: 70-120), and Cheng (1985). For Japanese studies in particular, see Hashimoto (1978: 2, notes 4 and 8). ~U3~:ftFf[i, listed in the first section of the bibliography to the present work.
A Handbook of 'Phags-pa Chinese (ABC Chinese Dictionary Series) by W. South Coblin