By W. South Coblin
Phags-pa chinese language is the earliest type of the chinese to be written in a systematically devised alphabetic script. it really is named after its author, a super thirteenth-century Tibetan scholar-monk who additionally served as political adviser to Kublai Khan. 'Phags-pa's invention of an alphabet for the Mongolian language is still a very very important accomplishment, either conceptually and essentially. With it he accomplished not anything lower than the production of a unified script for all the a variety of peoples within the Mongolian empire, together with the vital Asian Turks and Sinitic-speaking Chinese.
'Phags-pa is of tremendous significance for the learn of premodern chinese language phonology. even if, the script is hard to learn and interpret, and secondary fabrics on it are scattered and never simply received. the current publication is meant as a realistic creation to 'Phags-pa chinese language reports and a advisor for analyzing and studying the script. It contains elements. the 1st half is an introductory part comprising 4 chapters. this is often via a thesaurus of 'Phags-pa chinese language kinds and their corresponding chinese language characters, including pinyin and stroke order indexes to these characters.The first introductory bankruptcy outlines the discovery of the 'Phags-pa writing procedure, summarizes the most important forms of fabric preserved in it, and describes the historic and linguistic contexts during which this invention happened. Following chapters element the heritage of 'Phags-pa stories, the alphabet and its interpretation, and the salient gains of the underlying sound method represented by means of the script, evaluating it with these of varied later types of chinese language which were recorded in alphabetic resources.
A instruction manual of 'Phags-pa Chinese could be of certain curiosity to chinese language ancient phonologists and students taken with the heritage and tradition of China and significant Asia throughout the Yuan interval (A.D. 1279–1368).
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Extra info for A handbook of 'Phags-pa Chinese
Any claim for such a tie would need to be rigorously demonstrated before it could be seriously entertained. Now, let us shift to a more positive tack. 5 of Chapter 1 above, that it may have been a lingua franca of late JIn/late Southern Song times, and in particular one which was used in the personal entourage of Prince Qubilai (later Emperor Sh'izu of Yuan). Historical accounts indicate that the Chinese members of this retinue were educated persons from different parts of China (Rachewiltz 1966).
Finally, we may mention here Earl R. Hope, who published a monograph on Chinese 'Phags-pa in 1953. Hope was a colorful character, a polyglot, professional translator, and a close personal friend of the great mongolist, Nicholas Poppe. 6 In his study, which he printed privately, Hope issued strident challenges to the leading sinologists of his day, including Karlgren. His ideas are sometimes interesting but tend to be both unsystematically argued and lacking in supporting evidence. 3 The Period of Textual Discovery and Dissemination This period was marked by the publication of the Baij iax ing and MGZY texts.
In 1115, after consolidating their power, they established their own dynasty and began a war which resulted in the destruction of the Liao in 1122. It was in fact at the end of that year that they actually occupied the Liao city of NanjIng and first became overlords of a large population of Chinesespeaking subjects. They then very quickly pressed their attack against Song. Kaifeng fell in 1127, and the Chinese dynasty collapsed. In the course of this rather short five-year war the JIn made extensive use of Chinese subjects of the former Liao and also of a large number of turncoat Song civil and military officials.
A handbook of 'Phags-pa Chinese by W. South Coblin