Download PDF by Jeffrey Heath: A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton

By Jeffrey Heath

ISBN-10: 3110162857

ISBN-13: 9783110162851

This article provides grammar in English of a language of the Songhay relatives of West Africa. The emphasis is on grammatical different types and morphosyntax. themes comprise: focalization and relativization, logophoric pronouns, conjunctions and serial verbs.

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Additional resources for A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19)

Example text

1. The mid vowels {e o ee oo} tend to be fairly closed (high), and rarely reach the level of openness characteristic of the DjCh phonemes ε, ο. Particularly in Timbuktu itself, short a tends to be fronted to phonetic [ae] in some morphemes such as dam 'do', and on occasion I have had some difficulty distinguishing a from e in this local dialect. In most cases where my transcriptions have oscillated, further study has shown that the phoneme is a, and the upriver dialects as well as DjCh usually have a clear a.

Examples are given in (34), where again the regular transcription shows the underlying form. y ay_cindi [at:Jindi] Ί remain' ayjur [ad^ur] Ί ran' ay_naa [anraj] 'my mother' woy^cindi-foo [wotijindifo:] 'eleven' ("ten-remainder-one") b. w cirow-^bii [tjirobri:] 'guinea fowl' ("bird-black") haw^mee [hamie:] 'Muslim fast' ("tie-mouth") Again we use ligatures to hint at the assimilation while preserving transparent morphemic spellings. In the case of hammee, the old compound structure may be synchronically opaque.

In both of these cases, the Timbuktu variant closely matches that of the other major city in northern Mali, Gao. 1 Consonants The basic consonants of KCh are shown in (27). (27) Consonants labial to) B f m alveolar palatoalveolar velar t δ k d s (ζ) n j (sj (ζ) n laryngeal g (χ) η r (tap) W V h (') Though no instrumental study has been done, the voiceless stops and affricate {p t c k} appear to be aspirated. We now comment in turn on the minor phonemes. , piisi 'bundle (of women's garments)' (

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A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19) by Jeffrey Heath

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