By Lucy Eldersveld Murphy
In a meeting of Rivers, Lucy Eldersveld Murphy lines the histories of Indian, multiracial, and mining groups within the western nice Lakes area through the eighteenth and early 19th centuries. For a century the Winnebagos (Ho-Chunks), Mesquakies (Fox), and Sauks effectively faced waves of French and British immigration by means of diversifying their economies and commercializing lead mining.Focusing on own tales and exact neighborhood histories, Murphy charts the replaced fiscal forces at paintings within the quarter, connecting them to shifts in gender roles and intercultural relationships. She argues that French, British, and local peoples cast cooperative social and monetary bonds expressed in part through mixed-race marriages and the emergence of multiethnic groups at eco-friendly Bay and Prairie du Chien. considerably, local peoples within the western nice Lakes zone have been capable of adapt effectively to the recent frontier industry economic climate till their lead mining operations grew to become the envy of outsiders within the 1820s.
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Additional resources for A Gathering of Rivers: Indians, Metis, and Mining in the Western Great Lakes, 1737-1832
31 Women managed agricultural and maple sugar production besides preparing the family’s meals and clothing. 32 In addition, from the s onward, Mesquakie, Sauk, and Winnebago women were increasingly involved in lead mining. Men were in charge of hunting, ﬁshing, warfare, and diplomacy. They cut and collected wood, poles, and bark for the lodges women made, carved wooden dishes for the food women prepared, and provided other services in support of their wives’ and mothers’ production. Some made canoes and other transportation equipment or handsome pipes and other craft items.
Organizations included warrior societies (exclusively men) and groups of ceremonial healers (both men and women). Clans were important to tribal organization. Individuals inherited their fathers’ clan aﬃliations, and Sauks and Mesquakies were also assigned to one of two moieties based on birth order. Particular clans, and sometimes particular families within a clan, traditionally provided cer- Native American Village Economies tain chiefs and other tribal and village oﬃcers. For example, Winnebago civil chiefs were usually members of the Thunder clan, and town criers (those who went around a village making oﬃcial announcements) came from the Buﬀalo clan of that tribe.
After Dubuque’s death in , the Indians continued and expanded their mining activities but kept all except a handful of whites out of the region. S. government sent troops to open up the area to white and black miners. Chapter covers the subsequent lead rush, during which immigrants from the United States took over mining and forced the Indians oﬀ of their lead lands. In part , chapter describes the erosion of accommodation with Anglo settlement despite much creative adaptation on the part of Indians.
A Gathering of Rivers: Indians, Metis, and Mining in the Western Great Lakes, 1737-1832 by Lucy Eldersveld Murphy