By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This e-book is the main complete reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken by way of nearly 11 thousand humans situated basically in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in accordance with nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than a hundred and fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar includes the main whole description thus far of the morphology of the language in addition to an intensive therapy of word constitution, note order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe used to be divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams throughout the Indian removing of the 1830s. at the present time nearly all of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years previous, and few teenagers converse the language. even if extra teenagers one of the Mississippi Choctaws study the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to holding the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is severely vital. Compiled by way of the prime scholarly specialist at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a realistic consultant to local audio system and an vital instruction manual for linguists.
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Additional resources for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
5. 1. Assimilations with -1i The verbal suffix -1i (discussed in chapter 8) is associated with a somewhat idiosyncratic set of assimilations. Ulrich (1986) contains a comprehensive discussion of the subject, and should be consulted for details. 2. Rules applying in grades There are also some rather complex morphophonological rules associated with the verbal grades, treated in detail by Nicklas (1974) and Ulrich (1986). See chapter 10 for a description of the phonology of grade formation. 6. 1. The standard view of glottal stop insertion I follow Ulrich (1986, 1993) in regarding the glottal stop as an additional consonantal phoneme of Choctaw, but the issue is controversial.
Several other Muskogean languages are extinct: Apalachee (Kimball 1987, 1988)) Hitchiti, and Mobilian, a Muskogean-based lingua franca of the southeast (Crawford 1978; Drechsel 1979). My information on Creek is primarily based on my own work with Margaret Mauldin, of Okemah, Oklahoma. Information also comes from Nathan (1977), Hardy (1988), and Martin (1991). Information for other Muskogean languages comes from Kimball (1985, 1991) on Koasati; Lupardus (1982) and Sylestine, Hardy, and 6. See Munro (1987a) for arguments that Chickasaw is not merely a dialect of Choctaw, a s suggested by Haas (1941a).
If we make the assumption that anaphoric elements refer to constituents, then we have evidence that the verb plus object forms a constituent, while the verb plus subject does not.
A Choctaw Reference Grammar by George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD